Meet 4

Discourse Analysis and Grammar

By Dr. Bejo Sutrisno, M.Pd.

Recognize the nature of Grammar discourse to obtain theoretical knowledge based on the use of Anaphoric, cataphoric and exophoric references.

Grammatical Cohesion and Textuality

Spoken and written discourses display grammatical connections between individual clauses and utterances.

Grammatical Links

What are the grammatical links?

Grammatical Links

  • These Grammatical Links can be classified under three broad types:
  1. Reference (or co-reference);
  2. Ellipsis/substitution, and
  3. Conjunction.


3 References

Three types of references

which have important attention in discourse analysis are:

  1. Anaphoric Refererences,
  2. Cataphoric References, and 
  3. Exophoric Refernces
1. Anaphoric
  • ANAPHORIC reference occurs when a word or phrase refers to something mentioned earlier in the discourse.


Diana went to the campusShe was annoyed because it was closed

She refers to Diana.
it refers to the campus.

2. Cataphoric
  • CATAPHORIC reference occurs when a word or phrase refers to something mentioned later in the discourse.


Although I phone her every week, my mother still complains that I don’t keep in touch often enough.

Her refers to my mother.

3. Exophoric

EXOPHORIC reference occurs when a word or phrase refers to something outsidethe discourse.


Theyre late again, can you believe it?”
“I know! Well, theyd better get here soon or itll get cold.”

They refers to some people outside the discourse known to both speakers.


More References

  • Reference items in English include PRONOUNS (e.g: he, she, it, him , they, etc.), DEMONSTRATIVES (this, that, these, those), the ARTICLE the, and items like such a.

The schoolmaster was leaving the village, and everybody   seemed sorry. The miller at Cresscombe lent him the small   white tilted cart and horse to carry his goods to the city   of his destination, about twenty miles off, such a vehicle   proving of quite sufficient size for the departing teacher’s   effects 

Now consider this example of reference with the pronoun they:

Example (2.2)   

They pressed round him in ragged fashion to take   their money.  Andy, Dave, Phil, Stephen, Bob.

Example (2.3) 

It rained day and night for two weeks. The basement  flooded and everything was under water. It spoilt all our calculations.

Exophoric and Cataphoric References


McCarthy, M. (2000). Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers, Cambridge: University Press.
Penny, W. K. (2002). Form and Function of Linguistic Items in Discourse: Analysis of a Spoken Text.
Schiffrin, D., Tannen, D. & Hamilton, H.E. (2001). The Handbook of discourse analysis. UK: Blackwell Publisher.

Youtube Ceal Elss (2018). Cohesion with Cohesive Devices.